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NOTES FROM HISTORY: 70 years of Bulgarian National Radio 保加利亚广播电台七十周年回顾  

2012-08-12 16:41:10|  分类: historical mater |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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http://sofiaecho.com/2005/02/04/646019_notes-from-history-70-years-of-bulgarian-national-radio

NOTES FROM HISTORY: 70 years of Bulgarian National Radio
Fri, Feb 04 2005 13:00 CET
byIvan Vatahov 727 Views

BULGARIAN National Radio (BNR) celebrated its 70th anniversary on January 25, marking a period in which it has reported some of the most dramatic changes in Bulgaria's modern history.
It has come a long way, a way that started long before anyone even thought in this country that broadcasting could exist. The first Bulgarian to report on electro-magnetic waves, 30 years before their discovery, was Dr. Petar Beron in his book Panepistem, published in Paris in 1864.
However, it was in 1896-97 that the first radio-telegraphic equipment was imported into Bulgaria for the needs of the armed forces and large postal offices. This was not radio; it was "radiodiffusion" as it was called at that time, when the equipment was used only to transmit Morse code on electro-magnetic waves.
The first radio broadcasting attempts in Bulgaria were in 1927, with the establishment of the first radio-technical association with engineer Georgi M. Georgiev as chairman. This was also the time when the radio first became a topic of debate in the National Assembly.
In connection with those debates and ensuring articles in newspapers on radio broadcasting and gatherings of people who listened to foreign radio broadcasts, on May 20, 1927, the then minister of posts and telegraphs Kimon Georgiev submitted the first Radio Bill to Parliament. On April 6, 1927, the Radio Act, consisting of nine articles, was approved.
It was engineer Dimitar Bunev, who first started talking about the need for radio broadcasting in Bulgaria. He was the publisher of a newspaper called "Radiophile". In 1930, a team of Bulgarians with lots of entrepreneurial spirit, including Bunev and Georgiev, one of the leading Bulgarian scientists Professor Assen Zlatarov, the writer Elin Pelin and others, formed the first co-operative to apply for a permit for radio broadcasting. Politicians, military officers and journalists later joined the initiative.
The establishment meeting of the co-operative Rodno Radio (Homeland Radio) was held on March 30, 1930. The meeting elected a board of directors, which featured the above mentioned people, as well as the then director of Bulgarian news agency BTA, Henri Levenson, among others. A building on Benkovski Street in Sofia was granted to Homeland Radio on May 15, 1930. This is where the first transmitter and the first studio were installed. In June that same year, Homeland Radio started its first broadcasts from 6 pm to 8 pm.
The first Bulgarian radio programmes could be heard in Pernik, Kyustendil, Dupnitsa, Cherven Bryag and Lom, as well as in Shumen when the weather was fine. In Sofia, the broadcast could be heard using crystal detectors.
Homeland Radio changed its name to Radio Sofia on June 6, 1931. In early 1932, when daily three-hour broadcasts began, the radio station had 6030 subscribers.
On October 31, 1931, a microphone was placed in the big hall of the Savings Bank on Moskovska Street (in today's headquarters of DSK Bank) and the first live broadcast was a festive meeting of the co-operative Homeland Radio, in connection with the Day of Enlighteners. Speakers were Professor Zlatarov and General Georgi Kratunkov.
For the first time on December 31, 1931, King Boris III addressed a New Year message to the nation on radio live from the officers' ball at Sofia's Military Club. The radio was the only channel of communication for the head of state's New Year messages, until December 31, 1960, when they started to be televised as well. The station also relayed drama performances from the National Theatre and the Sunday liturgies from the St Alexander Nevsky Cathedral.
Another radio station opened in Varna in 1934, and a third one in Stara Zagora in 1936.
On January 25, 1935, Royal Decree No. 25 endorsed a Statutory Ordinance on Radio Broadcasting, issued by the Cabinet on January 17, 1935, that declared radio broadcasting state property.
Transmission of news from Bulgaria in Esperanto began in 1936. It was followed by a short-wave external service in Italian, German, French and English on May 1, 1937. That programme could reach its audience abroad thanks to a 352.9 m transmitter in Vakarel, inaugurated on October 3, 1937.
A building was purpose-built for the station at 4 Dragan Tsankov Boulevard between 1938 and 1941, designed by Georgi Ovcharov and Genko Popov, and the radio moved there in 1942. The eastern facade and roof of that building were destroyed in Allied air raids in 1944, and the station was evacuated to the Novi Han village school. A new building, next door to the old one, went up in 1971. Designed by Georgi Stoilov, it is shaped as an inverted pyramid, each of the six floors protruding above the lower one.
A second national programme went on the air in 1945. Four domestic programmes of the Bulgarian Radio were launched on January 4, 1971: Horizont, Hristo Botev, Orfei (Orpheus) and Znanie. Horizont began round-the-clock transmission on September 9, 1974.
Bulgarian National Radio (so designated since March 24, 1992) now operates two 24-hour domestic programmes: Horizont (on FM, MW, SW and LW) and Hristo Botev (on FM and MW). Since the end of 1998, Horizont has been available in real audio on the Internet round the clock.
Radio Bulgaria (the foreign service of Radio Sofia) broadcasts an average 55 hours daily in eleven languages: Albanian, Arab, Bulgarian, English, French, German, Greek, Russian, Serbian, Spanish and Turkish on MW and FM to an estimated audience of 10 million listeners in 140 countries in Europe, North and South America, Asia, Africa and even Antarctica.
The radio's Golden Sounds Library (established November 27, 1957) keeps 13 000 archive units and 22 000 tapes, documenting various events since 1935, reminiscences, statements and speeches by politicians, artists, recordings of music, literary works and stage performances, and sittings of Parliament.
The station has been headed by prominent writers like Sirak Skitnik (the first director of the radio), who was also an artist, poet and critic, Konstantin Konstantinov, Orlin Vassilev, Bogomil Nonev, journalists including BTA staffers like Boyan Traikov, Stefan Tihchev, Vecheslav Tunev, and communist functionaries like Karlo Lukanov and Filip Bokov.
At various times, BNR has employed incumbent National Assembly Deputy Chair Kamelia Kassabova, European Affairs Minister Meglena Kuneva, former environment minister Valentin Vassilev, writers and poets Valeri Petrov, Lyubomir Levchev, Kolyo Georgiev, Kalin Donkov, band leader Vili Kazasian, journalists Peter Uvaliev, Vladimir Kostov, Kevork Kevorkian, Dilyana Grozdanova, Radosvet Radev (now owner of the commercial Darik Radio), Petar Punchev (owner of Radio FM+), CNN anchor Ralitsa Vassileva and incumbent BTA Director General Maxim Minchev.
For 70 years now, BNR has been a leader in news reporting in Bulgaria, and even today when commercial radio stations are challenging its leading position, it continues to serve as one of the most impartial media in Bulgaria.

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